The current standard freight car air brake system. Also see AUTOMATIC AIR BRAKE.
AB CONTROL VALVE
The operating valve of the AB freight car air brake. It controls the charging, application and release of the brakes.
To give up. For example, when consignee or shipper relinquishes or gives up damaged freight to carrier; vehicle left on the highway, or disowns or disavows any knowledge of.
Abrasion is the rubbing or wearing away of a surface. Abrasion may also refer to a mark left on a surface. (also see brinelling.).
Antilock Braking System or Anti-Skid Braking System.
A block which a train is not permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train.
The actual numerical value of the error.
ABSOLUTE POLAR MEASUREMENTS
A point on drawing specified in terms of a radius (distance) and angle (theta) from the drawing origin (0,0).
ABSOLUTE X, Y COORDINATES
A point on a drawing specified in terms of X- and Y- offset from the drawing origin (0,0).
An electrical generator that generates voltage and current by rotating a magnetic field across stationary conductors. Also called alternator, ft produces alternating current and uses diodes to change the alternating current to direct current. See DC. generator.
(A): The rate of change of velocity with time. A = vf-vi/t FPS or MPS Acceleration may be either a positive value (acceleration), or a negative value (deceleration).
(fa): A pure number indicating the acceleration of a vehicle.
ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY
(g): The acceleration of a falling body due to the force of gravity (its weight); a standard of comparison of acceleration; usually taken as 32.2 ft or 9.81 m sec per sec.
A scuff mark made when sufficient power is applied to the driving wheels to make at least one of them spin on the roadway surface.
A scuff mark made when sufficient power is supplied to the driving wheels to make at least one of them.
A skid mark made when sufficient power is applied to the drive wheels to make at least one of them spin on the road surface.
Dashboard switch that enables acceleration feature of the cruise control. ( Detroit )
(or accelerator pedal): The accelerator is the foot pedal which controls the engine speed and in turn the speed of a vehicle. accelerator pedal depresses accelerator to increase engine speed.
The small internal pump which is a part of the carburetor. It applies additional fuel to the engine when the accelerator pedal is depressed.
ACCELERATED HEEL POINT
The intersection of the plane of the accelerator pedal and the top of the floor covering.
Fine taped or painted lines applied in contrasting colors to the finished body to accent certain lines and contours.
By the consignee of a shipment. That terminates the common carrier contract for transportation.
A service rendered by a carrier in addition to a transportation service, such as stopping in transit to complete loading or to partially unload. Also heating, storage, etc.
Is the combined weight (in excess of those standard items which may be replaced) of automatic transmission power steering power brakes power windows, power seats, radio ant heater to the extent that these items are available as factory-installed equipment (whether installed or not.)
That occurrence in a sequence of events which usually produces unintended injury, death, or property damage. An event that produces injury and/or damage. Involves a motor vehicle in transport, and occurs on a trafficway or while the vehicle is still in motion after running off the trafficway.
See cause analysis
The rate of the frequency of accidents to the frequency of some exposure measured such as vehicle miles traveled.
The effort to determine, from whatever information is available, how the accident happened. Reconstruction was formally referred to as determining "behavioral" or "immediate" causes of an accident: level four of traffic accident investigation.
The structural members which support and adapt the ACRS module to the vehicle.
ACKERMAN STEER ANGLE
The angle whose tangent is the wheel base divided by the radius of turn.
ACKERMAN STEER ANGLE GRADIENT
The rate of change of Ackerman steer angle with respect to change in steady-state lateral acceleration on a level road at a given trim and test conditions.
Any person other than a driver, passenger, or witness who is acquainted with people or vehicles connected to the accident or knows the circumstances of the accident
(Air Cushion Restraint System) A device to protect an occupant during crashes by deploying and inflating an air cushion.
An ACRS unit which includes the inflator, manifold, diffuser and air cushions, but does not include the sensors, body accommodations or trim cover.
The status of the diagnostic monitoring in the ECM. ( Detroit ) When a diagnostic code is recognized, the ECM turns on either the yellow (check engine) or red (stop engine) lamp on the dashboard. ( Detroit )
An occupant restraint system that requires some action on the part of the user to make the system functional. (Manual Seat Belts)
ACTUAL FRONT OF DASH
The vertical line tangent to the foremost normal surface of the dash panel at the centerline of occupant.
Cushion deployment caused by a valid vehicle crash condition..
An angle that is less than a right, 90-degree, angle.
A device that allows a connection to be made between two items of equipment having different types of connectors Most often used to connect electrical lines, particularly a connection between the tractor and trailer, when one electrical line has four prongs and the other six prongs.
Ration mechanism to correct speedometer reading.
See sliding tandem.
Any material run prior to first regular production run for purpose of pilot, pre-production or line-fill requirements.
ADVANCE OF A SIGNAL
The side of the signal opposite to that from which the indication is received.
"A" END OF CAR
The end opposite that on which the hand brake is mounted.
AERODYNAMIC ANGLE OF ATTACK
Aerodynamic angle of attack is the angle between the vehicle x-axis and the trace of the resultant air velocity vector on a vertical plane containing the vehicle x-axis.
An aerodynamic force is a force on a vehicle caused by the flow of air across the vehicle. An aerodynamic force is also generated by the movement of a vehicle through still air, since the equivalent effect could be produced by passing air over the same vehicle at rest.
AERODYNAMIC SIDESLIP ANGLE
The angle between the traces on the vehicle x-y plane of the vehicle x-axis and the resultant air velocity vector at some specified point in the vehicle.
The A-Frame is a type of automotive suspension which includes two control arms and a spring. In one configuration the spring is between two arms. Another configuration places the springs above the upper control arm.
AFTER-ACCIDENT SITUATION MAP
A scale drawing of the scene after a traffic accident situation is established; a graphical summary of the results of an accident without indication of any assumed events of the accident or other inferential elements
A combustor in which heat is added to the working fluid after the last expansion stage (SAE J604c).
Device for cooling air after compression in turbocharger.
A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another. A driver becomes an agent of the trucking company when signing for freight.
Several shipments from different shipper to one consignee that are consolidated and treated as a single consignment.
Truck body designed and equipped to mix concrete in transit.
Freight value mutually agreed upon by shipper and carrier as a bests for transportation charges. It also may represent an agreed maximum amount that can be recovered in case loss or damage. agreed wet 0 t A weight set and agreed upon by carrier and shipper as a basis for charges.
An inflatable bag that is filled with a gas after receiving an activation signal. The inflated bag then cushions the occupant during an impact and provides ride down to the occupants. An airbag is a passive restraint system.
All Fire Pulse
Auto Ignition Material
Ballistic Tank Test
Barrier Test Vehicle
D Shaft Sensor trigger
Dual Stage Inflator
ECS Electronic Crash Sensor:
Energy Reserve Capacitor
Gas Composition Tests
HIC Head Injury Criterion:
Inflatable Restraint System
Module Deployment Test
No Fire Pulse
Particulate Composition Tests
Protective Cover/Outer Cover
Tear Seam A
Time to First Pressure (TTFP)
Windshield Wire Protector
AIR BRAKE HOSE
The flexible connection between the brake pipes of cars or locomotives.
AIR BRAKE SYSTEM
An air brake system is a braking system in which air under pressure causes actuation of the brakes at the wheels.
Brakes that utilize compressed air instead of fluid.
Device for cleaning and purifying air entering engine. Also called air filter. There may be two, a primary and a secondary.
AIR CLEANER, DRY
Filter element made from dry material such as paper, fabric or metal.
AIR CLEANER, WET
Air cleaned through oil bath filter.
Device to build up and maintain required air pressure in the brake system reservoir.
Inflatable cloth bags which protect vehicle occupants by minimizing occupant movement and lessening occupant impact.
Same as air cleaner.
AIR FILTER RESTRICTION GAUGE
Registers the flow of air through the aft filter element. Provides indication of filter's obstruction by dirt and other materials which would restrict the flow of air to the engine.
An instrument which indicates the amount of air pressure in the reservoirs or brake pipe.
See air lines.
AIR INTAKE DISTRIBUTING MANIFOLD
Distributes air to the various cylinders of the engine and attaches to the cylinder heads at the intake ports.
Used to carry compressed air from one part of the brake system to another and from tractor to the trailer. One called the emergency or supply line and is always charged with compressed air. The other line is called the service or control line. When the air brake treadle valve is depressed, flows from the supply reservoir through the service line and causes the brakes to apply.
AIR PRESSURE GAUGE
Measures pressure of air in air tanks in psi. If the pressure drops below 60 psi., a low pressure warning device (buzzer or light) will operate, indicating unsafe vehicle. Sometimes there are two. The second gauge indicates pressure used during braking.
(trailer) Storage tank for compressed air for the trailer brakes.
Storage tank for compressed air.
Air or wind resistance to moving vehicle.
A cab-controlled sliding fifth wheel that can be unlocked by air to be moved backward or forward. See sifting fifth wheel.
AIR SUSPENSION SYSTEM
Air suspension systems are used to support the body of a vehicle and to keep it level. The compressed air is usually supplied by an air compressor driven by the engine. A governor to keep the pressure within limits, an air tank, appropriate piping and valves, and some type of air bellows or air spring make up the rest of the air suspension system.
A tag axle that has two bellows-like air bags that, when filled, force the tractor's rear axle harder against the ground for a smoother ride and for weight distribution between the two axles of the tractor.
The air-fuel ratio is the fraction that expresses the weight of fuel divided by the weight of air in the combustible mixture fed to an engine.
An axle with an elevating device operated by aft that enables the driver to regulate the amount of weight carried on that axle by raising or lowering it.
AIR-OVER-HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM
An air-over-hydraulic brake system is a brake system that uses compressed air to transmit a pressure from the driver control to a hydraulic brake system which in turn actuates the service brakes.
(See Air Spring.): An air spring is a device filled with pressurized air which acts in the same manner as a conventional metal spring. Such devices are common on some types of heavy duty vehicles. It is sometimes called an air-ride suspension. Air springs have also been used in some automobiles.
AIS ( Abb. Injury Scale )
An integer scale developed to rate the severity of trauma; the scales include 1 minor, 2 moderate, 3 serious, 4 severe, 5 critical, 6 maximum; currently untreatable. The scale does not explicitly denotes fatal injury. It was developed by the American Association for Automotive Medicine.
Setup parameter to enable or disable the alarm output in the ProDriver ( Detroit )
An accident is considered to have involved alcohol in any level of blood alcohol detected in a test on one of the involved persons (e.g., vehicle operator or pedestrian), or if the investigating officer indicated that drinking was involved, whether there was a test for alcohol (i.e., BAC) or not. This includes DWI and DUI citations and "had been drinking" notation.
A device which detects the frequency of the engineman's movements and initiates an air brake application when the required frequency of such movement is not maintained. See Deadman Control.
A street or highway intended to provide access to the rear or side of lots or buildings in urban districts and not intended for the purpose of through vehicular traffic; RR (slang), A clear track for movement through a yard.
(1) A sum granted as a reimbursement or repayment. (2) A deduction from the gross weight or value of goods.
A steel to which any alloying element other than carbon is added to strengthen physical properties.
Electrical current that changes its direction of flow many times a second and is used in a building, as opposed to direct current as used on a vehicle.
Generator producing alternating current.
ALUMINUM KILLED STEEL
(AK) Aluminum killed, cold reduced box annealed last (also tempered in exposed grades) drawing quality sheet steel for parts having an extremely severe draw.
A. M. A.
Automobile Manufacturers Association
The conditions of the surrounding or background medium, as ambient temperature or sound.
AMBIENT WIND VELOCITY
ambient wind angle is the angle between the X axis of the earth-fixed axis system and the ambient wind velocity vector.
AMBIENT WIND VELOCITY
ambient wind velocity is the horizontal component of the air mass velocity relative to the earth-fixed axis system in the vicinity of the vehicle.
AMERICAN TRUCKING ASSOCIATIONS, INC.
(ATA) A national federation of independent and autonomous state trucking associations, each representing all classes and types of truck operation, and thirteen independent and autonomous conferences, each of which represents a special class or type of truck operation. Headquarters location 1616 P Street, NOW., Washington, DC 20036.
Gauge for measuring amperes in electrical system.
See Retrograde Amnesia.
Unit of measurement of flow of electrical current.
Amplitude of displacement at a point in a vibrating system is the largest value of displacement that the point attains with reference to its equilibrium position.
amplitude ratio (relative magnification factor) The ratio of a forced vibration amplitude to the static amplitude.
An instrument that measures the amount of current flowing in an electrical current.
A process of study and evaluation with the intended result of reaching a decision.
A two position valve located at both ends of the brake pipe on locomotives, passenger and freight cars. When open, it allows the passage of air.
A collision between two traffic units approaching or separate roadways or other paths that intersect.
ANGLE OF APPROACH
The minimum angle between ground line and a line tangent to the foremost end of the car and through the front wheel ground contact point; also called ramp angle.
ANGLE OF DEPARTURE
Minimum angle between ground line and a line tangent to the rear-most end of the car through the rear wheel ground contact point; also called ramp angle.
(a): An unbalanced torque (t), acting on a body of moment of inertia I, and producing in the body an angular acceleration. T = I*a Torque, moment of inertia, and angular acceleration are all computed with respect to the same axis. The angular acceleration must be reported in radians/seconds2.
An angular impact occurs when two vehicles collide in such a manner that their respective directions of force are not parallel to each other.
The orientation of the vehicle axis system (x,y,z) with respect to the earth-fixed axis system (X,Y,Z) is given by a sequence of three angular rotations. The following sequence of rotations (see Note 6), starting from a condition in which the two wets of axis are initially aligned, is defined to the be standard:(1) A yaw rotation, about the aligned z and Z-axis.'-2 A pitch rotation, , about the vehicle y-axis.'-3 A roll rotation, , about the vehicle x-axis.
A measure of the change of rotation with respect to time. Angular acceleration is the rate change of angular velocity, usually measured in radians per second, or the vector quantity expressing velocity of a point in the vehicle relative to the earth-fixed axis system (X, Y, Z). The following motion variables are components of this vector resolved with respect to the moving vehicle axis system (x,y,z).
The process of heating or cooling the metal for the purpose of softening or removing stresses.
A test dummy representative of the size,, shape and weight of a particular male or female statistical type.
An anti-lock system is a portion of the service brake system that automatically controls the degree of rotational slip of one or more road wheels of the vehicle during braking.
The anti-lock warning on a brake system is a combined audible signal and light that informs the operator of locked brakes.
(Advanced Product Change Notice) applies only to parts not yet released for production. See Product Change Notice (PCN). (Chrysler derived.)
Term used for motorcycle handlebars that are at shoulder height of the rider.
The point at which two sides of an angle meet or cross.
American Petroleum Institute
The foremost pillar in the upper side structure of a vehicle. Successive pillars rearward are labeled "B", "C" and, in station wagons, "D".
The point at which the centerline of the torso contacts the seat cushion. Obsolete as a measuring point. (See "H" point).
APPLICATION PRESSURE AIR GAUGE
Gauge that indicates pressure being applied by brakes during brake operation. See air pressure gauge.
A decorative panel applied to a basic interior or exterior panel. May be metal, plastic, or a combination with a bright, brushed, textured or painted finish.
A fixed signal preceding an interlocking signal, governing the approach to the interlocking.
Advanced Program Weight Control System
Part of a curve, especially part of a circle, between two points on the curve.
AREA OF IMPACT
(AOI) has several meanings. It may mean the area of initial contact between a vehicle and an object on the highway. It may also mean the area at which two vehicles collide.
AREA OF REST
The final after impact position of a collision-involved vehicle. The position where a collision-involved vehicle ceases all motion following a collision.
A silvery, aluminum-pigmented paint with approximately the same color and luster as brushed or satin-finished chrome, aluminum or steel.
Metal I-beam frame and wheels with a wood structure - and sometimes styrofoam - used as the base for a clay model and made approximately 3" under the size of the proposed finished clay shape. (See also clay buck.)
A notice, furnished to consignee, of the arrival of freight.
Having parts connected by joints. A tractor-trailer is an articulated vehicle.
American Society of Body Engineers
The appearance of a fixed signal conveying an indication.
Aspect ratio as applied to a tire is the ratio of the tire section height to the section width.
The transfer of property to an another, frequently for the benefit of creditors.
Car which has been assigned to a particular industry or for use with a specific commodity.
One to whom a right or property is transferred.
One by whom a right or property is transferred to another.
Automated Surface Observation System, FAA
American Society for Testing and Materials
Freight bearing marks indicating origin and destination, but separated from the waybill. See over freight.
Asymptotic stability exits at a prescribed trim if, any small temporary change in disturbance or control input, the vehicle will approach the motion defined by the trim.
The period of time in a collision sequence from the point of initial contact to point of separation.
The amount in angular measure, by which the altitude of a celestial body in increased by the refraction of its light in the earths atmosphere, being zero at the zenith and maximum at the horizon.
Breaking up fuel to mis-like form.
Questioning informants at the scene of a traffic accident for the purpose of obtaining facts required for the official accident report and such other information as may be readily be available.
Examine and recording results of the accident and obtaining additional information at the scene of a traffic accident which may not be available later and which supplements data obtained for the accident report. The information is factual as far as possible. Level 2 of Accident Investigation.
An object changing its attitude, in contrast to changing its position, can rotate in any and all of the three planes X, Y, and Z. Yaw is rotation in the X,Y plane. Pitch is rotation in the X,Z plane, and Roll is rotation in the Y,Z plane.
Any inherent characteristic of a road, a vehicle, or a person that affects the probability of a traffic accident.
All Terrain Vehicle. A three or four wheel motorcycle used primarily for off road riding.
An ACRS inflator which supplements the stored gas pressure by means of a pyrotechnic heater.
A Diesel unit equipped with a cab and operating controls.
AUTO TRANSPORTER BODY
Truck or trailer body designed for the transportation of vehicles.
AUTOMATIC AIR BRAKE
A braking system which draws air from the atmosphere and stores it under pressure. A reduction in brake pipe pressure, regardless of how it is made, (bleeding of air by use of a valve, or by a brake in the train line) automatically applies the brakes. An increase in brake pipe pressure causes brakes to release.
(Passive Seat Belts) Occupant restraint system automatically applied to occupant to provide protection in case of impact or severe movement of the vehicle.
AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL SYSTEM (ABS)
A block signal system within the use of each block is governed by an automatic signal.
AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNALING
1), A system in which signals are operated automatically by a train, a broken rail, an open switch, a car standing on a turn out, fouling the main track, etc. 2), Railroad crossing flashers and gate operated automatically by the approach of a train.
A car specially designed for transporting automobiles. It may be a type of a box car or a type of flat car usually called an automobile rack car.
AUTOMOBILE PARTS CAR
A box car specially fitted for transportation of automobile parts in racks without packing.
AUTOMOBILE RACK CAR
Flat car with steel racks for transporting fully assembled automobiles. Racks have either two or three levels, are equipped with tie down devices, and are cushioned for vertical and horizontal shocks.
A reservoir for storage of compressed air to operate the brakes of each individual car, and supplied for the main reservoir on the locomotive through the brake pipe.
A second transmission connected with the main transmission to provide a wider range of speeds and gear ratios.
The entire area in a trafficway in which a traffic unit may maneuver without interfering with other traffic units. Available path is not the same as the road space which a vehicle is legally entitled to travel.
Average acceleration is found by dividing the change in velocity of an object by the time that is required to gain that velocity, using compatible units.
An agreement made between an industry and the railroad where by the industry is debited for the time cars are held for loading or unloading beyond a certain period, and credited for the times cars are released within that certain period. Demurrage charges are assessed at the end of the month for any outstanding debits
AVERAGE DRIVE LOAD
The calculated average operating load on the engine while it is not in idle mode. This quantity is valid for all three choices of idle mode definition. ( Detroit )
AVERAGE VEHICLE SPEED
Trip Distance divided by Trip Driving Time. ( Detroit )
Automated Weather Observation System
A straight line about which a body or a geometric figure rotates or may be supposed to rotate.
The axle of a vehicle is the shaft on which the wheels are mounted. The axle point is the midpoint of the ails on a semi-trailer having a single rear axle. The axle point of a tandem set is the point midway between the midpoints of the two axles. The axle point is used in the analysis of motion of the tractor-trailer combination.
Front axle having forged yokes into which the steering knuckles rotate.
Axle fore-and-aft shake
Oscillatory motion of an axle which consists purely of longitudinal displacement.
Ratio of axle to drive line the number of turns of the drive line in relation to one full turn of the drive wheels. The higher the numerical ratio, the slower the road speed; The ratio between the rotational speed (RMP) of the drive shaft and that of the driven wheel. Same Ratio as the gear reduction final drive, which is determined by dividing the number of teeth on the ring gear by the number of teeth on the pinion gear. See gear ratio.
AXLE REVERSE ELLIOT
Front axle having forged ends that insert between the bosses of the yoked steering knuckles.
AXLE SHAFT FLOATING
Shaft carries no vehicle loads but transmits torque.
AXLE SHAFT SEMI-FLOATING
Shaft carries vehicle loads as well as torque.
AXLE SIDE SHAKE
Oscillatory motion of an axle which consists of transverse displacement.
AXLE TEMPERATURE GAUGES
Indicate temperature of lubricant in drive axles.
The amount of a rig's gross weight that rest on any one axle.
Oscillatory motion of an axle about the horizontal transverse axis through its center of gravity.
Oscillatory motion of an axle around the vertical axis through its center of gravity.
Non-powered rear axle, located ahead of drive axle.
Non-powered rear axle (not driven); follows drive axle.
Caterpillar User's Manual